2018 Jun 08 – Notwithstanding the necessity to gain a firm grasp on both its detailed mechanisms and long-term effects, focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) guided by magnetic resonance imaging holds significant attention in trials for the treatment of selective neurological and psychiatric disorders. FUS is also assisting novel research in causal brain mapping, cognitive neuroscience and circuit plasticity. As a mechanical wave, FUS combines noninvasiveness with unprecedented sharp spatial focus (in the range of millimeters in diameter for the stimulated volume) and depth penetration. In addition to thermal ablation at high stimulus intensities (as early as 1954, Lindstrom and Fry et al. pioneered this application, and several protocols have been approved for use in a community setting), targeted drug delivery and neuromodulation induced by FUS are currently under investigation. Neuromodulatory effects are elicited at low intensities – lower or comparable to already adopted thresholds in ecography – by activation of ion channels sensitive to mechanic perturbations. Neural responses triggered by FUS have the exquisite capability of being either excitatory or inhibitory, transient or long-lasting, depending on specific parameter settings. Below is the link to the most recent review on ultrasonic neuromodulation, written by Jan Kubanek, Stanford University, California. It is worth noting that mechanosensation plays a significant role in the neurogenesis, maintenance, and repair of the central nervous system.